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Concept of God in Major Religions of The World By Dr Zakir Naik



One of the distinguishing features of our civilisation is the presence of a large 
number of religions and ethical systems. Mankind has always sought to 
understand the reason for creation and his own place in the scheme of things. 

Arnold Toynbee studied the history of man through the ages and put his 
findings in a monumental work consisting often volumes. He summarised that 
in the history of man, religion stood as the centre. In an article in The Observer 
on October 24, 1954 he wrote: 

"I have come back a the belief that religion holds the key to the mystery of 

Religion according to the Oxford dictionary means "belief in a superhuman 
controlling power especially in a personal God or gods entitled to obedience 
and worship". 

A common feature of all major religions is the belief in a Universal God or 
Supreme Divine Authority that is Omnipotent and Omniscient. Followers of 
all major religions believe that the God they worship is the same God for 
them as well as for others. 

Marxism, Freudianism and other 'non-religious' beliefs tried to attack the 
roots of organized religion. But these in turn, developed into belief systems 
themselves. For instance, when communism was many countries of the 
world it was preached with the same commitment and fervour that 
characterizes preaching and propagation of (Characterises the act of 
preaching) religions. 

Thus religion is an integral part of human existence. 

The Glorious Qur'an says in the following verse: 

"Say: 'O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us 
and you: That we worship none but Allah; That we associate no 
partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves. Lords 
and patrons other than Allah'. If then they turn back. Say ye: "Bear 
witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will)". 

(Al - Qur'an 3:64) 

The study of various religions has been an extremely rewarding experience 
for me. It has reaffirmed the belief that God created every human soul with 
some knowledge of His existence. The psycological constitution of man is 
such that he accepts the existence of the Creator, unles he has been 
conditioned to believe the contary. In other words, belief in God requires no 
condition, while a rejection of God does. 



Religions of the world can be broadly categorized into Semitic 
religions and non-Semitic religions. Non-Semitic religions can be 
divided into Aryan religions and non-Aryan religions. 

Semitic religions 

Semitic religions are religions that originated among the Semites. 
According to the Bible, Prophet Noah (pbuh) had a son called Shem. 
The descendents of Shem are known as Semites. Therefore, Semitic 
religions are the religions that originated among the Jews, Arabs, 
Assyrians, Phoenicians, etc. Major Semitic religions are Judaism, 
Christianity and Islam. All these religions are Prophetic religions that 
believe in Divine Guidance sent through prophets of God. 

Non-Semitic religions 

The non-Semitic religions are further subdivided into Aryan and non- 
Aryan religions: 

Aryan Religions 

Aryan religions are the religions that originated among the Aryans, a 
powerful group of Indo-European speaking people that spread 
through Iran and Northern India in the first half of the second 
Millenium BC (2000 to 1500 BC). 

The Aryan Religions are further subdivided into Vedic and non-Vedic 
religions. The Vedic Religion is given the misnomer of Hinduism or 
Brahminism. The non-Vedic Religions are Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, 
etc. Almost all Aryan religions are non-Prophetic religions. 

Zoroastrianism is an Aryan, non-Vedic religion, which is not 
associated with Hinduism. It claims to be a prophetic religion. 

Non-Aryan Religions 

The non-Aryan religions have diverse origins. Confucianism and 
Taoism are of Chinese origin while Shintoism is of Japanese origin. 
Many of these non-Aryan religions do not have a concept of God. They 
are better referred to as ethical systems rather than as religions. 

Most Authentic Definition Of God in any Religion 

The concept of God espoused by a religion cannot be judged by 
merely observing the practice of its followers. It is quite common for 
the followers of many religions to be ignorant of the concept of God in 
their scriptures. It is therefore better to analyse the concept of God in 
any religion by referring to its holy scriptures. 

Let us understand the concept of God in major world religions by 
analysing what their scriptures have to say about it. 



The most popular among the Aryan religions is Hinduism. 'Hindu' is 
actually a Persian word which stands for the inhabitants of the region 
beyond the Indus Valley. However in common parlance Hinduism is a 
blanket term for an assortment of religious beliefs, most of whom are 
based on the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Bhagwad Geeta. 

Common Concept of God in Hinduism : 

Hinduism is commonly perceived as a polytheistic religion. Indeed, most 
Hindus would attest to this, by professing belief in a multitude of 
Gods.Some Hindus believe in the system of three God while Some 
Hindus actually believe in the existence of thirty-three crore i.e. 330 
million Gods. However learned Hindus who are well versed with their 
scriptures insist that a Hindu should believe in and worship only one God. 

The major difference between the Hindu and the Muslim perception of 
God is the common Hindus' belief in the philosophy of Pantheism. 
Pantheism considers everything, living and non-living to be divine and 
sacred. The Hindus therefore consider the trees, the sun, the moon, the 
animals and even the human beings as manifestations of God. For the 
common Hindu, everything is God. 

Islam, on the contrary, exhorts man to consider himself and his 
surroundings as examples of divine creation rather than as divinity itself. 
Muslims therefore believe that everything is Gods' i.e. God with an 
apostrophe 's'. In other words we believe that everything belongs to 
God. The trees, the Sun , the Moon and everthing in this (Universe 
belong to God.) 

Thus the major difference between the Hindu and the Muslim beliefs is 
difference of the apostrophe 's'. The Hindus says everything is God. The 
Muslim says everything is Gods', i.e. God with an apostrophe 's'. 

The Holy Qur'an says ; 

"Come to common terms as between us and you". The first common term is 
"that we worship none but Aiiah". 

The first common term is "that we worship none but Allah". 

So let us try and find commonality by analysing both Hindu and Islamic 


Bhagwad Geeta 

The most popular among all the Hindu scriptures is the Bhagwad Geeta. 
Consider the following verse from the Geeta : 

"Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender 
unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship 
according to their own natures." 

[Bhagwad Geeta chapter 7 verse 20 (B.G. 7:20)] 

The Geeta is referring to people who are materialistic and therefore 
worship demigods i.e. besides the True God. 


The upanishads are also considered sacred scriptures by the Hindus. 
Consider the following verses from the Upanishads : 

i) "Ekam evaditiyam" 

"He is One only without a second" 

[Chandogya Upanishad 6:2:1 ^ 

ii) Consider again, the following verses from the Upanishads : 

"Na casya kasuj janita na cadhipah." 

"Of Him there are neither parents nor Lord" 

[Svetasavatara Upanishad 6,9] [^part II page 263.] 

iii) Consider the following verses from the Upanishads : 

"Na tasya pratima asti" 

(There is no likeness of Him.) 

[Svetasvatara Upanishad chapter 4:19] 

"Nainam urdhvam na tiryancam na madhye na parijagrabhat 
na tasy pratime asti yasya nama mahad yasah."^ 

"There is no likeness of Him whose name is great glory".' 

[The principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg 736 & 737] 

[Sacred Books of the East, volume 15, the Upanishad part II page no 253] 
Compare the above verses with the following verses of the Holy Qur'an 

"And there is none like unto Him." 

[Hoiy Qur'an , 112:4] 

"There is nothing whatever like unto Him." 

[Hoiy Qur'an ,42:11] 


iv) The following verses from the Upanishad allude to the inability of 
Man to imagine God in a particular form : 

"Na samdrse tisthati rupam asya, na caksusa pasyati kas 
canaiam. Hrda hrdistham manasa ya enam^ evam vidur amrtas 
te bhavanti". 

"His form is not to be seen; no one sees Him with the eye. Those who 
through heart and mind know Him as abiding in the heart become 

[Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:20]" 

The Holy Qur'an refers to this aspect in the following verse: 

"No vision can grasp Him But His grasp is over 

All vision: He is Above all comprehension^Yet is acquainted 

with all things". 

[Holy Qur'an 6:103] 

The Vedas 

Vedas' are considered the most sacred amongst all the Hindu scriptures. 
There are 4 main vedas. Rig Ved, Yajur Ved, Sam Ved and AtharvaVed. 

1. Yajur Ved 

i) Consider the following verses from the Yajur ved : 

"Na tasya pratima asti" 

"There is no image of Him"® 

[Yajurved 32 : 3] 

It further says "as He is unborn, He deserves our worship." 

"There is no image of Him whose glory verily is great. He sustains within 
Himself all luminous objects like the Sun etc. May He not harm me, this 
is my prayer. As He is unborn. He deserves our worship" 

[The Yajurveda by Devi Chand M. A. pg 377] 

ii) "He is bodyless and pure." Is mentioned in Yajurved 40 : 8: 

He hath attained unto the Bright, Bodiless, Woundless, Sinewless, the 
pure which evil hath not pierced. Far-sighted, wise, encompassing, he 
self-existent hath prescribed aims, as propriety demands, unto the 
Everlasting Years". 

[Yajurved 40 : 8] 

[Yajurveda samhita by Ralph I. H. Griffith pg 538] 


Mi) It is also mentioned in the Yajur Veda 

"Andhatama pravishanti ye asambhuti mupaste" 

"They enter darkness, those who worship natural things", for example air, 
water, fire etc "They sink deeper in darkness those who worship sambhuti 
Sambhuti means created things, for example table, chair, idol, etc". 

[Yajurved 40 : 9f 

iv) It also mentions a prayer stating 

"Lead us to the good path and remove the sin that makes us stray and 

[Yajurveda chapter 40 :16]^ 

2 . Atharva ved 

Consider the following verses from Atharva ved 

i) "Dev maha osi" 

"God is verily great" 

[Atharvaveda 20 58 :3] 

"Verily, Surya, thou art great; truly, aditya, thou art great.As thou art 
great indeed thy greatness is admire: yea, verily, great art thou,0 God". 

(Atharveda Samhiti vol 2 William Dmight Whitney pg 910) 

A similar message is given in Qur'an in Surah Rad : 

"He is the Great, the most High". 

[The Holy Qur'an 13 ;9] 

3 . Rig Ved 

i) The oldest of all the vedas is Rig veda. It is also the one considered 
most sacred by the Hindus. The Rig Ved states that "Sages (learned 
Priests) call one God by many names". 

[Rigveda 1:164:46)] 

ii) The Rigveda gives no less than 33 different attributes to Almighty 
God, Many of these are mentioned in Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1 

Amongst the various attributes given in Rigveda, one of the beautiful 
attributes! Mentioned in Rigveda Subh II verse 3 for Almighty God is 
'Brahma'. 'Brahma' means 'The Creator'. Translated into Arabic this word 
it means 'Khaliq'. Muslims can have no objection if Almighty God is 
referred to as 'Khaliq' or 'Creator' or 'Brahma'. However Muslims 
definitely do not subscribe to the view that 'Brahma' is Almighty God 
who has four heads (nauzubillah), Muslims take strong exceptation to it. 


Describing Almighty God in anthropomorphic terms also goes against the 
following verse of Yajurveda : 

"Na tasya Pratima asti' 

(There is no image of Him) 

[Yajur Ved 32 ; 3] 

Another beautiful attribute mentioned in the Rigveda Book II hymn 1 
verse 3 (R.V. 2:1:3) is Vishnu. 'Vishnu' means 'The Sustainer'. 

Translated into Arabic it means 'Rabb'. Again, Muslims can have no 
objection if Almighty God is referred to as 'Rabb' or 'Sustainer' or 
'Vishnu'. But the popular image of Vishnu among Hindus is that of a God 
who has four arms, with one of the right arms holding the 'Chakra' ie 
a discus and one of the left arms holding a 'conch shell', riding a bird or 
reclining on a snake couch. Muslims can never accept any image of God. 
As mentioned earlier this also goes against Yajurveda chatper 40 verse 

iii) Consider the following verses from the Rigved: 

"Ma chidanyadvi shansata" 

"O friends, do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One. 

[Rigveda Book 8 :1:1 ]^° 

[Rigveda samhiti vol ix, pg 1 and 2 by swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati 
and satyakam Vidhya Lankar] 

iv) "The wise yogis concentrate their minds; and concentrate their 
thought as well in the Supreme Reality, which is Omnipresent, Great and 
Omniscient. He alone, knowing their functions, assigns to the sense organs 
their respective tasks. Verily, great is the glory of to Divine Creator". 

[Rigveda 5:81 ] “ 

[Rigveda Samhiti volume 6 page 1802 and 1803 by Swami SatyaPrakash 
Saraswati and Satyakam Vidhyalanka] 

Brahma Sutra of Hindu Vedanta: 

The Brahma Sutra of Hindu Vedanta is: 

"Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan" 

"There is only one God, not the second; not at all, not at all, not in the 
least bit". 

Thus only a dispassionate study of the Hindu scriptures can help one 
understand the concept of God in Hinduism. 



Sikhism is a non-semitic, Aryan, non Vedic religion. Though not a major 
religion of the world, it is a branch or offshoot of Hinduism founded by 
Guru Nanak at the end of the 15‘^ Century. It originated in the Area of 
Pakistan and North West India called Punjab meaning the land of the 5 
rivers. Guru Nanak was born in a Kshatriya (warrior caste) Hindu family 
but was very strongly influenced by Islam and Muslims. 


The word 'Sikh' is derived from the word 'Sisya' meaning disciple or 
follower. Sikhism is a religion of 10 Gurus, the first Guru being Guru 
Nanak and the and the last being Guru Gobind Singh. The sacred 
book of Sikhism is Sri Guru Granth also called Adi Granth Sahib. 


Every Sikh is supposed to keep the five 'K's which are also serve as his identity. 

(i) Kesh - uncut hair; which all the Gurus kept 

(ii) Kangha - comb; used to keep the hair clean. 

(iii) Kada - metal or steel bangle; for strength and selfrestrain 

(iv) Kirpan - dagger; for self defence 

(v) Kaccha - special knee length underwear or underdrawler for agility 


The best definition that any Sikh can give regarding concept of God in 
Sikhism is quote the "Mul Mantra" - the fundamental creed of Sikhism, 
which occurs at the beginning of Guru Granth Sahib. 

It is mentioned in Sri Guru Granth Sahib volume 1 Japuji, the first verse 

"There exists but one God, who is called the true the creator, free from fear 
and hate, immortal not begotten, self-existant. Great and compassionate". 

Sikhism enjoins on its followers strict monothiesm. It believes in only 
One Supreme God who is, in the unmanifest form called 'ek omkara'. 

In the manifest form He is called as Omkara and has several attributes such as : 

Kartar - The Creator 

Sahib - The Lord 

Akal - The Eternal 

Sattanama - The Holy name 

Parvardigar - The Cherisher 

Rahim - The Merciful 

Karim - The Benevolent 

He is also called 'Wahe Guru' - the One true God. 


Besides Sikhism being strictly monotheistic, it does not believe in 
Avataravada - the doctrine of incarnation. Almighty God does not 
incarnate Himself in what is known as Avatara. Sikhism is also strongly 
against idol worship 

Guru Nanak influenced by Kabir 

Guru Nanak was influenced by the sayings of Sant Kabir so much that 
several chapters of Shri Guru Nanak Sahib contain couplets of Sant Kabir. 

One of the famous couplets of Sant Kabir is 

"Dukh mein Sumirana sabh karein Sukh mein karein na koya 
Jo sukh mein sumirana karein To dukh kaye hoye" 

(Everyone remembers God during trouble but no one remembers Him 
during peace and happiness. The one who remembers God during peace 
and happiness why should he have trouble ?). 

Compare this with the following verse of the Holy Qur'an: 

"When some trouble toucheth man. He crieth unto his Lord, 
Turning to Him in repentance: But when He bestoweth A 
favour upon him As from Himself, (man) Doth forget what he 
cried And prayed for before. And he doth set upRivals unto 

[Holy Qur'an 39:8] 



Zoroastrianism is an ancient Aryan religion which originated in Persia 
more than 2500 years ago. Though it has relatively few adherents, less 
than one hundred and thirty thousand in the whole world, it is one of the 
oldest religions. The Iranian Prophet Zoroaster was the founder of 
Zoroastrianism (also commonly known as Parsiism). The sacred 
scripture of the Parsis is the Dasatir and Avesta. 

God in Zoroastrian religion is known as'Ahura Mazda''Ahura' means'the 
Lord' and 'Mazda' means 'the Wise' hence 'Ahura Mazda' means 'the Wise 
Lord' or 'the Wise God'. Ahura Mazda stands for a strict form of 
Monotheistic God. 

Qualities of God according to Dasatir : 

According to Dasatir, Ahura Mazda has the following qualities : 

(i) He is One. 

(ii) Nothing resembles Him. 

(iii) He is without an origin or end. 

(iv) He has no father or mother, wife or son. 

(v) Without a body or form. 

(vi) Neither the eye can behold Him, nor the power of thinking can 
conceive him. 

(vii) He is above all that you can imagine of. 

(viii) He is nearer to you than your own self. 

Qualities of God according to Avesta 

According to Avesta, the Gathas and the Yasna give the various 
characteristics to Ahura Mazda such as 

(i) Creator 

(Yasna 31:7 & 11) (Yasna 44:7) (Yasna 50:11) (Yasna 51:7) 

(ii) Most Mighty - the Greatest 
(Yasna33:ll) (Yasna 45:6) 

(iii) Beneficent -'Hudai'. 

(Yasna 33:11) (Yasna 48:3) 

(iv) Bountiful - 'Spenta'; 

(Yasna 43:4,5,7,9,11,13,15) (Yasna 44:2) (Yasna 45:5) (Yasn 46:9) 
(Yasna 48:3) 



Judaism is one of the major Semitic religions. Its followers are known as 
Jews and they believe in the prophetic mission of Prophet Moses (pbuh). 

(i) The following verse from Deuteronomy contains an exhortation 
from Moses (pbuh) 

"Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad" 

It is a Hebrew quotation which means 

"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord" 

[The Bible, Deut 6:4] 

(ii) Consider the following verses from the Book of Isaiah : 

"I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no saviour." 

[The Bible, Isaiah 43:11 ] 

(iii) "I am lord, and there is none else 

There is no God besides me." 

[The Bible, Isaiah 45 : 5] 

(iv) "I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is 
none like me." 

[ The Bible, Isaiah 46:9] 

(v) Judaism condemns idol worship in the following verses : 

"Thou Shalt have no other gods before me.Thou shalt not 
make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything 
that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that 
is in the water under the earth.Thou shalt not bow down 
thyself to them, nor see them; for I the Lord thy God am a 
jealous God..." 

[The Bible, Exodus 20:3-5] 

(iv) A similar message is repeated in the book of Deutoronomy : 

"Thou shalt have none other gods before me.Thou shalt not 
make thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that 
is inheaven above, or that in the earth beneath, or that is in 
the water beneath the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself 
unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous 

[The Bible, Deut 5:7-9] 



Christianity is a Semitic religion, which claims to have nearly 
two billion adherents all over the world. Christianity owes it 
name to Jesus Christ (peace be on him). Jesus (pbuh) is also a 
revered figure in Islam.Islam is the only non-Christian Faith that 
prescribes faith in Jesus (pbuh); 

Before we discuss the concept of God in Christianity let us 
examine the position of Jesus (pbuh) in Islam: 

(i) Islam is the only non-Christian faith, which makes it an 
article of faith to believe in Jesus (pbuh). No Muslim is a 
Muslim if he does not believe in Jesus (pbuh). 

(ii) We believe that he was one of the mightiest Messengers of 
Allah (SWT). 

(iii) We believe that he was born miraculously without any 
male intervention, which many modern day Christians do 
not believe. 

(iv) We believe that He gave life to the dead with God's 

(v) We believe that He healed those born blind, and the lepers 
with God's permission. 

One may ask, if both Muslims and Christians love and respect 
Jesus (pbuh), where exactly is the parting of ways? The major 
difference between Islam and Christianity is the Christians' 
insistence on the supposed divinity of Christ. A study of the 
Christian scriptures reveals that Jesus (pbuh) never claimed 
divinity. In fact there is not a single unequivocal statement in 
the entire Bible where Jesus (pbuh) himself says, "I am God" or 
where he says, "worship me". In fact the Bible contains 
statements attributed to Jesus (pbuh) in which he preached 
quite the contrary. Consider the following statements in the 
Bible, attributed to Jesus Christ (pbuh): 

"My Father is Greater than I" 

(John 14:28) 

"My Father is Greater than all" 

(John 10:29) 

"...I cast out devils by the spirit of God...." 

(Mathew 12:28) 

".... with the finger of God cast out devils." 

(Luke 11:20) 


"I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge; and my 
judgement is just; because I seek not my own will, but the will of the 
Father, which hath sent me." 

The mission of Jesus Christ (pbuh) - he came to fulfill the Law: 

Jesus (pbuh) never claimed divinity for himself. He clearly announced 
the nature of his mission. Jesus (pbuh) was sent by God to confirm the 
previous Judaic law. This is clearly evident in the following statements 
attributed to Jesus (pbuh) in the Gospel of Mathew: 

"Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the Prophets; I am not 
come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you. Till heaven and 
earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all 
be fulfilled. 

"Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, 
and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the Kingdom of 
heaven; but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be 
called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 

(The Bible, Mathew 5: 17-20) 

God sent Jesus (pbuh): 

The Bible mentions the prophetic nature of Jesus' mission in the 
following verses: 

"... and the word whic h ye hear is not mine, but the Father's 
which has sent me. 

(The Bible, John 14:24) 

"And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only 
true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou has sent." 

(The Bible,John 17:3) 

Jesus refuted even a remote suggestion of his divinity. Consider the 
following incident mentioned in the Bible: 

"And, behold, one came and said unto him, "Good master, what good 
thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?" 

And he said unto him, "Why callest thou me good? There is none good 
but one, that is, God; but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the 

The above statements from the Bible refute the Christian dogma of 
divinity of Jesus and of salvation through the sacrifice of Jesus (pubh). 
Jesus (pbuh) exhorts keeping the commandments as the means to 
achieve salvation. 

( The Bible, Mathew 5:17-20) 


Jesus (pbuh) of Nazareth - a man approved of God: 

The following statement from the Bible supports the Islamic belief that 
Jesus (pbuh) was a prophet of God. 

"Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, A man approved 
of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by 
him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know." 

The First Commandment is that God is One: 

The Bible does not support the Christian belief in trinity at all. One of the 
scribes once asked Jesus (pbuh) as to which was the first commandment 
of all, to which Jesus (pbuh) merely repeated what Moses (pbuh) had 
said, namely: 

"Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhat". 

This is a Hebrew quotation, which means: 

"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord." 

(Mark 12:29) 



Islam is a Semitic religion, which has more than 1.2 billion adherents all 
over the world. Islam means "submission to the will of Allah". Muslims 
accept the Qur'an, as the word of God revealed to Prophet Mohammed 
(peace be upon him). Islam states that Allah sent messengers and 
prophets throughout the ages with the message of the Unity of God, and 
accountability in the Hereafter. Islam thus makes it an article of faith to 
believe in the earlier prophets, starting with Adam, and including Noah, 
Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, John, Jesus and many 
others (may peace be on them all). 

The Most Concise Definition of God: 

The most concise definition of God in Islam is given in four verses of 
Surah Ikhlas which is Chapter 112 of the Holy Qur'an: 

1. "Say: He is Allah, The one and Only. 

2. "Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. 

3. "He begets not, nor is He begotten. 

4. "And there is none like unto Him." 

[Holy Qur'an 112:1-4] 

The word 'Assamad' is difficult to translate. It means 'absolute existence', 
which can be attributed only to Allah, all other existence being temporal 
or conditional. It also means that Allah is not dependent on any person 
or thing but all persons and things are dependent on Him. 

Surah Ikhlas - the touchstone of theology: 

Surah Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the Holy Qur'an, is the touchstone of 
theology. 'Theo' in Greek means God and logy means study. Thus 
Theology means study of God and to Muslims this four lines definition of 
Almighty God serves as the touchstone of the study of God. Any 
candidate to divinity must be subject to this 'acid test'. Since the 
attributes of Allah given in this chapter are unique, false gods and 
pretenders to divinity can be easily dismissed using these verses. 

What does Islam say about 'god-men'? 

India is often called the land of'god-men'. This is due to the abundance 
of so called spiritual masters in India. Many of these 'babas' and 'saints' 
have a large following in many countries. Islam abhors deification of any 
human being. 


To understand the Islamic stand towards such pretenders to divinity let us 
analyze one such 'god-man', Osho Rajneesh. Rajneesh was one among 
the multitude of'spiritual teachers' produced by India. In May 1981 he 
went to U.S.A. and established a town called 'Rajneeshpuram'. He later fell 
foul of the West and was finally arrested and asked to leave the country. 
He came back to India and started a commune in Pune which is now 
known as the 'Osho' commune. He died in 1990. The followers of Osho 
Rajneesh believe that he is Almighty God. A visitor to the 'Osho commune' 
in Pune will find the following epitaph on his tombstone: 

"Osho - never, born never died; only visited the planet earth between 
11*'^ December 1931 to 19**' January 1990". 

They forget to mention that he was not given visa for 21 different 
countries of the world. The followers of Rajneesh see no problem in their 
'god' visiting the earth and requiring a visa to enter a country! 

Let us put this candidate to divinity, Bhagwan Rajneesh, to the test of 
Surah Ikhlas, the touchstone of theology: 

i) The first criterion is "Say, He is Allah, one and only". Is Rajneesh 
one and only? No! There are many people like Rajneesh who claim 
divinity. Some disciples of Rajneesh may still hold that Rajneesh is 
one and only. 

ii) The second criterion is, 'Allah is absolute and eternal'. Rajneesh was 
surely not absolute and eternal since he died in 1990. We know 
from his biography that he was suffering from diabetes. Asthma, 
and chronic backache. He alleged that the U.S.A. Government gave 
him slow poison in Jail. Imagine Almighty God being poisoned! 
Rajneesh was neither absolute nor eternal. 

iii) The third criterion is 'He begets not, nor is He begotten'. We know 
that Rajneesh was born in Jabalpur in India and had a mother as 
well as a father who later became his disciples. 

In May 1981 he went to U.S.A. and establised a town called 
'Rajneeshpuram'. He later fell foul of the West and was finally 
arrested and asked to leave the country. He came back to India 
and started a commune in Pune which is now known as the 'Osho' 
commune. He died in 1990. the followers of Osho Rajneesh believe 
that he is Almighty God. A visitor to the 'Osho commune' in Pune 
will find the following epitah on his tombstone:''Osho - never, born 
never died; only visited the planet earth between 11th December 
1931 to 19th january 1990". 


They forget to mention that he was not granted visa for 21 countries of the 
world. Can aperson imagine a 'God' visiting the earth and requiring a visa 
to enter a country! The Arcbishop of Greece said that if Rajneesh had not 
been deported, they would have burnt his house and those of his discipiles. 

The fourth test, which is the most stringent, is "There is none like unto 
Him". The moment you can imagine 'God' or compare 'God' to anything 
then he (the candidate to divinity) is not God. It is not possible to 
conjure up a mental picture of the One True God. We know that Rajneesh 
was a human being with a white flowing beard. He had 2 eyes 2 ears, 1 
nose, 1 mouthPhotographs and posters of Rajneesh are available in 
plenty. The moment you can imagine what god is, he is not God. 

Many are tempted to make anthropomorphic comparisons who was 
given the title of Mr. Universe, the strongest man in the work What is the 
concluding remark to this section of "acid test"? This said testcannot be 
passed by anyone except the true God. 

By what name do we call God? 

The Muslims prefer calling Allah, instead of the English word 'God'. The 
Arabic word, 'Allah', is pure and unique, unlike the English word 'God', 
which can be played around with. 

If you add 's' to the word God, it becomes 'Gods', that is the plural of God. 
Allah is one and singular, there is no plural of Allah. If you add 'dess' to the 
word God, it becomes 'Goddess' that is a female God. There is nothing like 
male Allah or female Allah. Allah has no gender. If you pre-fix tin before 
the word God, it becomes tin-God i.e., fake God. Allah is a unique word, 
which does not conjure up any mental picture nor can it be played around 
with. Therefore the Muslims prefer saying 'Allah', but sometimes while 
speaking to the non-Muslims we may have to use the inappropriate word 
God for Allah. Since the intended audience of this book is general in 
nature, consisting of both Muslims as well as non-Muslims, I have used 
the word God instead of Allah in several places in this article. 

God does not becomes a human being: 

Some people argue that God can do everything, then why cannot He take 
human form? If God wishes He can become a human being. But then He 
no longer remains God because the qualities of God and human beings in 
many respects are completely incompatible. The following paragraphs will 
show the absurdity of the idea of God becoming a human being. 

God is immortal and human beings are mortal. You cannot have a God- 
man i.e. an immortal being, and at the same time and in the same 
entity. It is meaningless. God does not have a beginning while human 
beings have a beginning. You cannot have a person, not having a 


beginning and at the same time having a beginning. Human being have 
an end You cannot have a being, which has no end and an end at the 
same time. It is meaningless. 

God Almighty does not require to eat whereas human beings require 
nourishment to sustain life. 

"And He it is that Feeds but is not fed." 

[Holy Qur'an 6 :14] 

God does not require rest or sleep while human beings cannot go 
indefinitely without rest. 

But He - the Living, The Self-subsisting, Eternal. 296 No 
slumber can seize Him Nor sleep. His are all things In the 
heavens and on earth." 

[Holy Qur'an 2:255] 

Worship of another human is useless: 

If the idea of God becoming a human is unacceptable, we must also agree 
that there is therefore no sense in worshipping another human. If God 
becomes a human form. He ceases to be God and possesses all the 
qualities of a human. For example if a brilliant professor meets with an 
accident and suffers irreparable loss of memory, it would be foolish on the 
part of his students to continue to take lessons from him in that subject. 

Moreover if God takes human form, the same human cannot later 
become God, since human beings, by definition, do not possess the 
power to become God. The worship of God in a human form is therefore 
a logical fallacy and should be abhorred in all its forms. 

That is the reason why the Holy Qur'an speaks against all forms of 
anthropomorphism.The glorious Qur'an says in the following verse: 

"There is nothing whatever like create him" 

(Al-Qur'an 42:11) 

God does not perform ungodly acts: 

The attributes of Almighty God preclude any evil since God is the 
fountainhead of justice, mercy and truth. God can never be thought of 
as doing an ungodly act. Hence we cannot imagine God telling a lie, 
being unjust, making a mistake, forgetting things, and such other 
human failings.Similarly God can do injustice if he wants but He will 
never do it because being unjust is an ungodly act. 

The Holy Qur'an says: 

"Allah is never unjust In the least degree" 

([Holy Qur'an 4:40) 

God can be unjust if he wants, but the moment God does injustice He ceases to be God. 


God does not forget nor does He make mistakes: 

God will not forget anything because forgetting is an ungodly act, which 
reeks of human limitations and failing. Similarly God will not make a 
mistake, because making mistakes is an ungodly act. 

".my Lord never errs, nor forgets". 

[Holy Qur'an (20:52)] 

God performs Godly acts: 

He has power over all things: The Islamic concept of God is that God has 
power over all things. The Holy Qur'an says in several places: 

"For verily Allah has power over all things" 

[Holy Qur'an (2:106)] 

[Holy Qur'an (2:109)] 

[Holy Qur'an (2:284)] 

[Holy Qur'an (3:29)] 

[Holy Qur'an (16:77)] 

[Holy Qur'an (35:1)] 

Futher the Glorious Qur'an says: 

"Allah is the doer of all He intends" 

[Holy Qur'an (85:16)] 

We must keep in mind that Allah intends only Godly acts and not 
ungodly acts. 

Many religions at some point believe,directly or indirectly in the 
philosophy of anthropomorphism i.e. God becoming a human form. Their 
contention is that Almighty God is so pure and holy that He is unaware 
of the hardships, shortcomings and feelings of human beings. In order 
to set the rules for human beings He came down to earth in the form of 
a human. This deceptive logic has fooled countless millions through the 
ages. Let us now analyze this argument and see if it stands to reason. 

The Creator prepares the instruction manual: 

Allah (SWT) has endowed us humans with reason and intelligence. We 
invent and manufacture appliances for specific purposes. Tape recorders 
for instance are manufactured in large numbers. It has never been 
suggested that in order to understand what is good for the tape recorder 
the manufacturer should become a tape recorder himself. One simply 
assumes that the manufacturer will publish an instruction manual, since 
he has complete knowledge of his product. In short the instruction 
manual gives the dos and don'ts for the machine. 


If you think of the human being as a machine,it is indeed a complex 
creation of Allah (SWT).Our Lord and Creator Allah (SWT) need not come 
in the form of a human being to know what is good or bad for the human 
being. He only has to reveal the instruction manual to mankind.The Holy 
Qur'an is the instruction manual for human beings. 

Moreover, Allah will call this creation to account on the Day of 
Judgement. It therefore stands to reason, that the Creator informs us 
about the dos and don'ts of life. 

Allah chooses Messengers: 

Allah (SWT) need not come down personally for writing the instruction 
manual. Over the ages Allah has chosen men in every nation to deliver 
the Divine message. Such chosen men are called as messengers and 
prophets of God. 

Some people are 'blind' and 'deaf': 

Despite the absurdity of the philosophy of anthropomorphism, followers 
of many religions believe in and preach it to others. Is it not an insult to 
human intelligence and to the Creator who gave us this intelligence? 
Such people are truly 'deaf' and 'blind' despite the faculty of hearing and 
sight given to them by Allah. The Holy Qur'an says: 

"Deaf, dumb, and blind. They will not return (to the path)." 

[Holy Qur'an 2:18] 

The Bible gives a similar message in the Gospel of Mathew: 

"Seeing they see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do 
they understand." 

[Matthew 13:13] 

A similar message is also given in the Hindu Scriptures in the Rigveda 

"There maybe someone who sees the words and yet indeed do 
not see them; may be another one who hears these words but 
indeed does not hear them" 

[Rigveda 10:71:4] 

All these Scriptures are telling its reader that though the things are 
made so clear yet they divert away from the truth. 


Attributes of God: 

To Allah belong the most beautiful names: 

The Holy Qur'an says: 

"Say: Call upon Allah, or Call upon Rahman: By whatever name 
you call Upon Him, (it is well):For to Him belong The Most 
Beautiful Names." 

[Holy Qur'an 17:110] 

A similar message regarding the beautiful names of Allah is repeated in 
the Holy Qur'an in: 

Surah Al-Aaraf (7:180), in Surah Taha (20:8) and in Surah Al-Hashr 

The Qur'an gives no less than 99 different attributes to Almighty God 
and the crowning one is Allah. The Qur'an refers to Allah as Ar-Rahman 
(Most Gracious), Ar-Raheem (Most Merciful) and Al-Hakeem (All Wise) 
among many other names. You can call Allah by any name but that 
name should be beautiful and should not conjure up a mental picture. 

Each attribute of God is unique and 
possessed by Him alone: 

Not only does God possess unique attributes, but also each attribute of 
Almighty God is sufficient to identify Him. I shall clarify this point in 
detail. Suppose we take the example of a famous personality, say 
astronaut Neil Armstrong. 

If someone says Neil Armstrong is an American The attribute of being 
American possessed by Neil Armstrong is correct but not sufficient to 
identify him. Similarly Neil Armstrong is an astronaut. The attribute of 
being an astronaut is not unique to Neil Armstrong . To identify the 
person uniquely we must look for a unique attribute. For example, Neil 
Armstrong was the first human to set foot on the moon. So when one 
asks, who was the first man to set foot on the moon, the answer is only 
one, i.e. Neil Armstrong. Similarly the attribute of Almighty God should 
be unique e.g. Creator of the Universe. If I say creator of the building, 
it may be possible and true but it is not unique. Thousands of people can 
make a building, so there would be no difference between man and God. 
But each attribute of Allah points to none but Allah. 


For example: 

"Ar-Raheem", the Most Merciful 
"Ar-Rahman", the Most Gracious 
"Al-Hakeem"^ the Most Wise 

So when one asks, who is "Ar-Raheem", the Most Merciful, there can be 
only one answer, i.e. Almighty Allah. 

One attribute of God should not contradict with other attributes: 

To continue with the earlier example, if somebody says Neil Armstrong 
is an American astronaut who is only four feet tall, the attribute 
(American astronaut) is correct but its associated quality (only four feet 
tall) is false. Similarly if someone says that God is the Creator of the 
Universe with one head, two hands, two feet, etc. the attribute (Creator 
of the Universe) is correct but the associated quality (in the form of 
human being) is wrong and false. 

All attributes should point to the one and same God: 

Since there is only one God all the attributes should point to one and the 
same God. To say that Neil Armstrong was an American astronaut who 
first set foot on the moon, but his the second was Edwin Aldrin is 
wrong.Both have Unique Qualities Similarly to say that the Creator is one 
God and the Cherisher is another God is absurd because there is only 
one God with all these attributes combined together. 

Unity of God: 

Some polytheists argue by saying that the existence of more than one 
God is not illogical. Let us point out to them that if there were more than 
one God, they would dispute with one another, each God trying to fulfill 
his will against the will of the other Gods. This can be seen in the 
mythology of the polytheistic and pantheistic religions. If a 'God' is 
defeated or unable to defeat the others, he is surely not the one true 
God. Also popular among polytheistic religions is the idea of many Gods, 
each having different responsibilities. Each one would be responsible for 
a part of man's existence e.g. a Sun god, a Rain god, etc. This indicates 
that one 'God' is incompetent of certain acts and moreover he is also 
ignorant of the other Gods' duties and responsibilities. There cannot be 
an ignorant and incapable God. If there were more than one God it would 
surely lead to confusion, disorder, chaos and destruction in the Universe. 
But the universe is in complete harmony. 


The Holy Qur'an says: 

"If there were, in the heavens And the earth, other 
gods Besides Allah, there would Have been confusion 
in both! But glory to Allah, The Lord of the Throne: 
(High is He) above What they attribute to Him!" 

[Holy Qur'an 21:22] 

If there were more than one God, they would have taken away 
what they created. The Holy Qur'an says: 

"No son did Allah beget. Nor is there any god Along 
with Him: (if there were Many gods), behold, each god 
Would have taken away What he had created. And 
some would have Lorded it over others! Glory to Allah! 
(He is free) From the (sort of) things They attribute to 

[Holy Qur'an (23:91)] 

Thus the existence of one True, Supreme Almighty God, is the 
only logical concept of God. 

There are a few religions like Buddhism and Confucianism, 
which are agnostic religions. They do not comment on God. 
They neither confirm nor deny the existence of God. There are 
other religions like Jainism, which are atheistic religions and 
which do not believe in the existence of God. 

(Inshallah I shall be publishing a book "Is the Qur'an God's 
Word?" which can Alhamdulillah prove the existence of Allah 
(SWT) to an atheist or an agnostic by means of reason, logic 
and science on the basis of the Holy Qur'an.) 




All major religions that believe in the existence of God ultimately, on a 
higher level, believe in one supreme God. All religious scriptures actually 
speak about monotheism i.e. belief in only one true God. 

People change scriptures for their benefit: 

By the passage of time most of the religious scriptures have been 
distorted and changed by people for their own benefits. The creed of 
many religions has thus been distorted from monotheism to pantheism 
or polytheism. The Holy Qur'an says: 

"Then woe to those who write The Book with their own hands. 
And then say: "This is from Allah," To traffic with it For a 
miserable price! Woe to them for what their hands Do write, 
and for the gain They make thereby." 

[Holy Qur'an 2:79] 


Definition and Categories: 

Islam believes in Tawheed' which is not merely monotheism i.e. belief in 
one unique God, but much more. Tawheed literally means "unification" 
i.e. "asserting oneness" and is derived from the Arabic verb 'Wahhada' 
which means to unite, unify or consolidate. 

Tawheed can be divided into 3 categories. 

(i) Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah 

(ii) Tawheed al-Asmaa-was-sifaat 

(iii) Tawheed al-Ibaadah. 

a. Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (maintaining the unity of 

The first category is 'Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah'. 'Ruboobeeyah' is 
derived from the root verb "Rabb" meaning Lord, Sustainer and 

Therefore 'Tawheed-ar-Ruboobeeyah' means maintaining the unity of 
Lordship. This category is based on the fundamental concept that Allah 
alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing. He created or 
originated all that exists out of nothing. He alone is the sole Creator, 
Cherisher, and Sustainer of the complete universe and all between it, 
without any need from it or for it. 


b. Tawheed al-Asmaa was-sifaat (maintaining the unity of 
Allah's name and attributes): 

The second category is 'Tawheed al Asmaa was Sifaat' which means 
maintaining the unity of Allah's name and attributes. This category is 
divided into five aspects: 

(i) Allah should be referred to as described by Him and His Prophet: 

Allah must be referred to according to the manner in which He and His 
prophet have described Him without explaining His names and attributes 
by giving them meanings other than their obvious meanings. 

(ii) Allah must be referred to as He has referred to Himself 

Allah must be referred to without giving Him any new names or 
attributes. For example Allah may not be given the name al-Ghaadib 
(the Angry One), despite the fact that He has said that He gets angry, 
because neither Allah nor His messenger have used this name. 

(iii) Allah is referred to without giving Him the attributes of His creation. 

In a reference to God, we should strictly abstain from giving Him the 
attributes of those He has created. For instance in the Bible, God is 
portrayed as repenting for his bad thoughts in the same way as humans 
do when they realize their errors. This is completely against the principle 
of Tawheed. God does not repent and He does not commit any mistakes 
or errors. 

The key principle when dealing with Allah's attributes is given in the Holy 
Qur'an in Surah Ash-Shurah: 

"There is nothing Whatever like unto Him^ And He is the One 
That hears and sees (all things)." 

Although hearing and seeing are human qualities, when attributed to the 
Divine Being they are without comparison in their perfection, unlike 
when associated with humans who require ears, eyes, etc. and who are 
limited in their sight and hearing. 

(iv) Men should not to be given any attribute of God: 

To refer to a human with the attribute of God is also against the principle 
of Tawheed. For example, referring to a person as one who has no 
beginning or end (eternal). 

(v) Allah's name cannot be given to his creatures: Some divine names 
in the indefinite form, like 'Raoof' or 'Raheem' are permissible names for 
men as Allah has used them for Prophets; but 'Ar-Raoof' (the Most Pious) 
and Ar-Raheem (the most Merciful) can only be used if prefixed by 'Abd' 
meaning "slave of" or "servant of", i.e. 'Abdur-Raoof' or'Abdur-Raheem'. 

[Holy Qur'an (42:11)] 


c. Tawheed al-Ibaadah (maintaining the unity of worship): 

(i) Definition and meaning of 'Ibadaah': 

'Tawheed al-Ibaadah' means maintaining the unity of worship or 
Tbaadah'. Ibaadah is derived from Arabic word 'Abd' meaning slave or 
servant. Thus Ibaadah means servitude and worship. Salaah is one of 
the highest forms of Ibaadah i.e. worship but is not the only form. People 
misunderstand that worship of Almighty God only means ritual prayers 
but the concept of worship in Islam includes total obedience, submission 
and servitude. Following the commandments of God and abstaining from 
things He has forbidden is Ibaadah (worship) and this worship is only 
due to Allah alone and to no one else. 

(ii) All three categories to be followed simultaneously. 

Only believing in the first two categories of Tawheed without implementing 
Tawheed-al-Ibaadah is useless. The Qur'an gives the examples of 
"Mushrikeens" (idolaters) of the Prophet's time who confirmed the first two 
aspects of Tawheed. It is mentioned in the Holy Qur'an: 

Say: "Who is it that Sustains you (in life) From the sky 
and from the earth? Or who is it that Has power over 
hearing And sight? And who Is it that brings out The 
living from the dead And the dead from the living? 

And who is it that Rules and regulates all affairs? They will 
soon say, "Allah". Say, "Will you not then Show piety (to 

[Holy Qur'an 10:31] 

A similar example is repeated in Surah Zukhruf of the Holy Qur'an: 

"If thou ask them. Who Created them, they will 
Certainly say, Allah: how Then are they deluded 
Away (from the Truth)?" 

[Holy Qur'an 43:87] 

The pagan Meccans knew that Allah was their Creator, Sustainer, Lord 
and Master. Yet they were not Muslims because they also worshipped 
other gods besides Allah. Allah categorized them as "Kuffaars" 
(disbelievers) and "Mushrikeen" (idol worshippers and those who 
associate partners with God). 

"And most of them Believe not in Allah Without associating 
(others As partners) with Him!" 

[Holy Qur'an 12:106] 

Thus Tawheed al-Ibaadah i.e. maintaining the unity of worship is the 
most important aspect of Tawheed. He alone deserves worship and He 
alone can grant benefit to man for his worship. 



a. Definition: 

The omission of any of the above mentioned categories of tawheed or 
deficiency in the fulfillment of any criteria of Tawheed is referred to as'shirk'. 

Shirk literally means sharing or associating partners. In Islamic terms 
it means associating partners with Allah and is equivalent to idolatry. 

b. Shirk is the greatest sin which Allah will never forgive: 
The Holy Qur'an describes the greatest sin in Surah Nisa: 

"Allah forgives not That partners should be set up With Him; 
but He forgives Anything else, to whom He pleases; to set up 
Partners with Allah 

Is to devise a sin Most heinous indeed" 

[ Al-Qur'an 4:48] 

The same message is repeated in Surah Nisa: 

"Allah forgives not (The sin of) joining other gods With Him; 
but He forgives Whom He pleases other sins Than this: one 
who joins 

Other gods with Allah,Has strayed far, far away 
(From the Right)." 

[ Al-Qur’an 4:116] 

c. Shirk leads to hell fire: 

The Qur'an says in Surah Maidah: 

"They do blaspheme who say: 'Allah is Christ the son Of Mary.' 
But said Christ: 'O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord 
And your Lord'. Whoever Joins other gods with Allah - Allah 
will forbid him The Garden, and the Fire Will be his abode. 
There will For the wrongdoers Be no one to help." 

[ Al-Qur'an5:72] 

d. Worship and obedience to none but Allah: 

The Qur'an mentions in Surah Al-Imran: 

Say: "O people Of the Book! Come To common terms As 
between us and you: That we worship None but Allah; That we 
associate No partners with Him; That we erect not. From 
among ourselves. Lords and patrons Other than Allah." 

If then they turn back. Say ye: "Bear witness That we (at 
least) Are Muslims (bowing To Allah's Will)." 

[ Al-Qur’an 3:64] 



The Holy Qur'an says: 

"Revile not ye Those whom they call upon Besides Allah, lest 
They out of spite Revile Allah 
In their ignorance." 

[ Al-Qur'an 6:108] 

"And if all the trees On earth were pens And the Ocean (were 

ink). With seven Oceans behind it 

To add to its (supply). Yet would not the Words 

Of Allah be exhausted (In the writing): for Allah 

Is Exalted in power. Full of Wisdom." 

[ Al-Qur'an 31:27] 

"O men! Here is A parable set forth! Listen to it! Those On 
whom, besides Allah, You call, cannot create (Even) a fly, if 
they all Met together for the purpose! And if the fly should 
snatch Away anything from them. They would have no power 
To release it from the fly. Feeble are those who petition!" 

(Al-Qur'an 22:73) 

And all Praise be to Allah, the Lord, Creator, Cherisher and Sustainer of 
all the Worlds!